Although he ruled over the Jews in Israel in the time before Christ, Herod the Great was not completely Jewish. He was born in 73 B.C. to an Idumean man named Antipater and a woman named Cyprus, who was the daughter of an Arab sheik.
Herod the Great was a schemer who took advantage of Roman political unrest to claw his way to the top. During a civil war in the empire, Herod won the favor of Octavian, who later became the Roman emperor Augustus Caesar. Once he was king, Herod launched an ambitious building program, both in Jerusalem and the spectacular port city of Caesarea, named after the emperor. He restored the magnificent Jerusalem temple, which was later destroyed by the Romans following a rebellion in A.D. 70.
In the gospel of Matthew, the Wise Men met Herod on their way to worship Jesus. He tried to trick them into revealing the child's location in Bethlehem on their way home, but they were warned in a dream to avoid Herod, so they returned to their countries by another route.
Jesus' stepfather, Joseph, was also warned in a dream by an angel, who told him to take Mary and their son and flee to Egypt, to escape Herod. When Herod learned he had been outwitted by the Magi, he became furious, ordering the slaughter of all the boys who were two years old and under in Bethlehem and its vicinity.
Joseph did not return to Israel until Herod had died. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus reported that Herod the Great died of a painful and debilitating disease that caused breathing problems, convulsions, rotting of his body, and worms. Herod reigned 37 years. His kingdom was divided by the Romans among his three sons. One of them, Herod Antipas, was one of the conspirators in the trial and execution of Jesus.
Herod the Great's tomb was discovered by Israeli archaeologists in 2007 at the site of the city of Herodium, 8 miles south of Jerusalem. There was a broken sarcophagus but no body.
Herod the Great's Accomplishments:Herod strengthened Israel's position in the ancient world by increasing its commerce and turning it into a trading hub for Arabia and the East. His massive building program included theaters, amphitheaters, a port, markets, temples, housing, palaces, walls around Jerusalem, and aqueducts. He kept order in Israel but by using secret police and tyrannical rule.
Herod the Great's Strengths:
Herod worked well with Israel's Roman conquerors. He knew how to get things done and was a skilled politician.
Herod the Great's WeaknessesHe was a brutal man who killed his father-in-law, several of his ten wives, and two of his sons. He ignored the laws of God to suit himself and chose the favor of Rome over his own people. Herod's heavy taxes to pay for lavish projects forced an unfair burden on the Jewish citizens.
Life Lessons:Uncontrolled ambition can turn a person into a monster. God helps us keep things in the proper perspective when we focus on him above all else.
Jealousy clouds our judgment. We should appreciate what God has given us instead of worrying about others.
Great accomplishments are meaningless if done in a way that dishonors God. Christ calls us to loving relationships rather than building monuments to ourselves.
Hometown:Ashkelon, a southern Palestine seaport on the Mediterranean Sea.
Referenced in the Bible:Matthew 2:1-22; Luke 1:5.
Occupation:General, regional governor, king of Israel.
Father - Antipater
Mother - Cyprus
Wives - Doris, Mariamne I, Mariamne II, Malthace, Cleopatra (Jewish), Pallas, Phaedra, Elpis, others.
Sons - Herod Antipas, Philip, Archelaus, Aristobulus, Antipater, others.
He (Herod) sent them to Bethlehem and said, "Go and make a careful search for the child. As soon as you find him, report to me, so that I too may go and worship him." (NIV)
When Herod realized that he had been outwitted by the Magi, he was furious, and he gave orders to kill all the boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity who were two years old and under, in accordance with the time he had learned from the Magi. (NIV)
Jack Zavada, a career writer and contributor for About.com, is host to a Christian website for singles. Never married, Jack feels that the hard-won lessons he has learned may help other Christian singles make sense of their lives. His articles and ebooks offer great hope and encouragement. To contact him or for more information, visit Jack's Bio Page.