Definition of Deacon:The term deacon comes from the Greek word diákonos meaning servant or minister. It appears at least 29 times in the New Testament.
The role or office of deacon was developed in the early church primarily to minister to the physical needs of the members of the body of Christ. In Acts 6:1-6 we see the initial stage of development.
After the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost, the church began to grow so fast that some believers, particularly widows, were being neglected in the daily distribution of food and alms. Also, as the church expanded, logistical challenges arose at meetings simply because of the size of the fellowship. The apostles, who had their hands full caring for the spiritual needs of the church, decided to appoint seven leaders who could tend to the physical and administrative needs within the body.
So the Twelve called a meeting of all the believers. They said, "We apostles should spend our time teaching the word of God, not running a food program. And so, brothers, select seven men who are well respected and are full of the Spirit and wisdom. We will give them this responsibility. Then we apostles can spend our time in prayer and teaching the word." (Acts 6:2–4, NLT)Two of the seven deacons appointed here in Acts were Stephen, who later became the first Christian martyr, and Philip the Evangelist.
The first reference to an official position of deacon in the local congregation is found in Philippians 1:1, where the Apostle Paul says, "I am writing to all of God's holy people in Philippi who belong to Christ Jesus, including the elders and deacons." (NLT)
Qualities of a DeaconWhile the New Testament never specifically defines the responsibilities or duties of this office, Paul explains the qualities of a deacon in 1 Timothy 3:8-13:
In the same way, deacons must be well respected and have integrity. They must not be heavy drinkers or dishonest with money. They must be committed to the mystery of the faith now revealed and must live with a clear conscience. Before they are appointed as deacons, let them be closely examined. If they pass the test, then let them serve as deacons.
In the same way, their wives must be respected and must not slander others. They must exercise self-control and be faithful in everything they do.
A deacon must be faithful to his wife, and he must manage his children and household well. Those who do well as deacons will be rewarded with respect from others and will have increased confidence in their faith in Christ Jesus. (NLT)
Deacon or Elder?The biblical requirements of deacons are similar to that of elders, but there is a clear distinction in office.
Elders are spiritual leaders or shepherds of the church. They serve as pastors and teachers and also provide general oversight on financial, organizational, and spiritual matters. The practical ministry of deacons in the church is vital, freeing elders to focus on prayer, studying God's Word, and pastoral care.
What is a Deaconess?The New Testament seems to indicate that both men and women were appointed as deacons in the early church.
In Romans 16:1, Paul calls Phoebe a deaconess:
I commend to you our sister Phoebe, who is a deacon in the church in Cenchrea. (NLT)
Today scholars remain divided on this issue. Some believe Paul was simply referring to Phoebe as a servant in general, and not as one who functioned in the office of deacon.
On the other hand, some cite the above passage in 1 Timothy 3, where Paul describes the qualities of a deacon, as proof that women, too, served as deacons. Verse 11 states, "In the same way, their wives must be respected and must not slander others. They must exercise self-control and be faithful in everything they do."
The Greek word here translated "wives" can also be rendered "women." So, some Bible translators believe 1 Timothy 3:11 does not concern deacons' wives, but women deaconesses. Several Bible versions render the verse with this alternate meaning:
In the same way, the women are to be worthy of respect, not malicious talkers but temperate and trustworthy in everything. (NIV)
As more evidence, deaconesses are noted in other second and third century documents as officeholders in the church. Women served in areas of discipleship, visitation, and assisting with baptism. And two deaconesses were mentioned as Christian martyrs by the early second century governor of Bithynia, Pliny the Younger.
Deacons in the Church TodayNowadays, as in the early church, the role of a deacon may encompass a variety of services and differs from denomination to denomination. In general, however, deacons function as servants, ministering to the body in practical ways. They may assist as ushers, tend to benevolence, or count tithes and offerings. Now matter how they serve, Scripture makes it clear that ministering as a deacon is a rewarding and honorable calling in the church:
Those who have served well gain an excellent standing and great assurance in their faith in Christ Jesus. (NIV)